Experts on the Malicious Use of Artificial Intelligence and Challenges to International Psychological Security (part II)

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  • 17 December 2021
  1. Which of the threats to international psychological security caused by the malicious use of artificial intelligence do you consider the most relevant for your country?

 

Vian Bakir and Andrew McStay

Surreptitious influencing via psychological manipulation on social media is a real threat in the UK. In the 2016 “Brexit” referendum on whether or not to leave the European Union, Cambridge Analytica offered one of the “leave” campaigns data-driven insights on voter segmentation and messaging based on psychographic clustering, persuadability, and partisanship, a sub-category of which was “voter suppression.”

Raynel Batista Tellez

Since 2016, Cuba has been moving faster to introduce a digital transformation to public administration. There is a national taskforce for developing AI-driven technologies due to potential security threats from the malicious use of artificial intelligence technologies. The most relevant threats have been identified in order to develop a cybersecurity strategy:

a) Automated disinformation campaigns

b) Automated hacking

c) Robot users or fake people

Robert Borkowski

In my opinion, the greatest threats may be the influencing of moods and social attitudes toward increased conflicts and social tensions, and the increasing political polarization in society. Generating mass hysteria, fear, aggression, and hostility in Polish society is, unfortunately, relatively easy to carry out.

Anna Bychkova

Since Russia is embedded in the global information space, threats to IPS are relevant to our country. One problem is the wide distribution and popularity among developers of open-source solutions. Most new research is published on the Internet, and the degree of detail in the documents is such that you can simply take fragments of programs and create complete solutions based on them. This is one of the most serious problems of using artificial intelligence not for the benefit of society, but for malicious purposes.

Matthew Crosston

Manipulation and exploitation of the generally high level of political ignorance and educational flaws that exist across social strata in American society.

 Svetlana S. Gorokhova

In the Russian Federation, in my opinion, the most urgent threat to the information and psychological security of the population is, with the advent of AI technologies, the expanding opportunities to manipulate the minds of all citizens, and principally young people. Blind trust in any (even unverified) information obtained from the Internet combined with a natural distrust of information obtained from official (state) sources can have serious psychological consequences, expressed through the strengthening of legal and social nihilism, the emergence of radical views, the rooting of a depressive perception of surrounding reality, and the formation of the stereotype that “anywhere is better than here.”

Pavel Karasev

The greatest threat is posed by influence operations carried out by states to achieve goals of foreign and domestic policy. This threat is growing against the backdrop of the increasing intensity and number of such operations, enabled by the use of AI technologies. A particular danger is the use of deep content targeting for a more accurate information and psychological influence on certain groups of the population and individuals, aimed at the erosion of traditional Russian spiritual and moral values.

Alexander Raikov

My country is Russia. Russians themselves should not discuss and suggest the most relevant malicious uses of artificial intelligence to our country in an open media space because it gives our foes a chance to make the most dangerous malicious attacks.

Marina Reshetnikova

Russia is at the very beginning of the combat for IPS because AI technologies are only just entering our lives. However, even at this stage, we are faced with specific problems. One of them is gaining momentum in the chatbot attacks.

Vitali Romanovski

The critical threats for Belarus are AI employment for the data-poisoning of strategic ecosystems, such as public transport or power grids, and targeted cognitive operations against the population.

Sergey A. Sebekin

In my opinion, a potential threat to Russia is the use of deepfakes, as well as the inculcation in people’s minds of any information that erodes political stability through the use of AI technologies. With the help of chat bots, for example, ideas about society, power and the current political situation can be artificially imposed, which is indicative of the psycho-emotional state of citizens.

Pierre-Emmanuel Thomann

The threat to national sovereignty is the most relevant

Marius Vacarelu

The main threat is AI use by political parties – for example, one of them used Cambridge Analytica in 2016 elections. We must underline too that internal competition is thematically and temporally limitless.

  1. Are any measures (political, legal, technical or other) being taken in your country to overcome threats to psychological security caused by the malicious use of artificial intelligence? What are these measures?

Vian Bakir and Andrew McStay

Globally, the strategic communications industry (of which Cambridge Analytica was a part) remains unregulated and opaque, with self-regulation failing to stymie its activities. For instance, the Final Report from the UK Inquiry into Fake News and Disinformation observes that the strategic communications industry is largely self-regulated in the UK and requires regulation to curb bad behavior in the industry. The Inquiry recommended that the UK government consider new regulations to ensure transparency in strategic communications companies, with all campaigns that they work on at home and abroad on public record; that the government revisit the UK Bribery Act to gauge whether it prevents bad behavior abroad; and that the government explore the feasibility of adopting a UK version of the US Foreign Agents and Registration Act, which requires persons acting as political agents of foreign principals to disclose their relationships with the foreign principal, as well as the activities, receipts, and disbursements in support of those activities (DCMS 2019: 83–84). However, at the time of writing, most of the UK (namely, England, Northern Ireland, and Wales) still does not implement even basic recommendations that would help people understand who has sponsored political content online during elections. (New legislation has come into force in Scotland covering digital election campaign material about parties and campaigners. It legislates that both “paid for” and “unpaid” digital election campaign material must be clearly labeled with information about who is promoting it. This legislation applied to all parties and campaigners in the May 2021 Scottish Parliament election).

Raynel Batista Tellez

Cuba is working to develop a national cybersecurity strategy that covers issues in several fields:

Legal: The new Constitution Act elected for Cuban people that includes principles for international relations and a Data Protection Law is soon to be implemented.

Political: The last Congress of the PCC (Cuban Communist Party) identified MUAI threats as national security priorities.

Technical: Several platforms and actions have been implemented to protect national sovereignty, for example the NOVA operating system for PC and mobile devices, the declaration of telecommunications as a public and exclusive State property, and the creation of a national university network to cooperate with and support government strategies (devices, infrastructure, operating systems, educational programs, etc.).

Social: Cuban educational programs are focused on promoting best practices in the development and use of digital technologies with social responsibility from their early stages. Educational programs should make the public aware of these threats.

Robert Borkowski

So far, most of society does not perceive the threat of MUAI. The recent development of 5G technology has aroused much more concern, but only in some social environments. Most of society accepts all technical innovations uncritically. People are happy with all the novelties on the digital market. The state authorities also do not yet have any concerns about MUAI. Only some press publications, think tanks, and human rights foundations mention the new dangers of the dissemination and malicious use of artificial intelligence.

Anna Bychkova

Regulatory legal acts of a strategic nature have been adopted: the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 490 of 10 October 2019, “On the development of artificial intelligence in the Russian Federation” (alongside the “National strategy for the development of artificial intelligence for the period up to 2030”); the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 213 of 12 April 2021, “On approval of the foundations of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of international information security”; and the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 400 of 2 July 2021, “On the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation.”

Matthew Crosston

No legitimate measures beyond public international media shaming.

Svetlana S. Gorokhova

I believe that special measures aimed at overcoming threats to national and international psychological security caused by the malicious use of artificial intelligence do not yet exist in any country.Countering such threats is carried out within the framework of the application of methods and means of ensuring information security in general. Such measures, of course, exist in Russia and are expressed through competent authorities’ control over the information content of open resources, and principally for protecting children from information that can cause them psychological damage. So, as an example, we can cite the federal law “On the protection of children from information that harms their health and development” of 29 December 2010, N 436-FZ, which has been in force in Russia for more than 10 years.

Alexander Raikov

I think these questions are for the special organizations in the field of national security to answer. All that I know of is the creation of the Ethical Code, which will be approved in the AI Forum this year, and the growing scientific studies in advanced AI.

Marina Reshetnikova

In Russia, the state is the main fighter in overcoming national and IPS threats caused by the malicious use of AI. At the government level, legal and technical measures are being taken to overcome these threats. Experimental legal regimes are the most promising and effective tools for creating a special testing procedure and subsequent implementation of AI solutions. They ensure the required level of security, protection of citizens’ rights and control by government agencies. An example is the introduction of an experimental legal regime in Moscow, where the maximum number of large IT companies is concentrated.

Vitali Romanovski

National legislation updates, the enhancement of multi-layered cybersecurity measures for critical infrastructure objects, special training programs for the personnel of national security entities, and information exchange at the regional level.

Sergey A. Sebekin

Russia is a state with a population that has a high level of Internet access and good quality higher technical education (with Russian programmers being among the best in the world). At the same time, it is also characterized by serious social problems that have been exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic and the activities of criminal and terrorist groups, which gives reason for serious concern about the threats of the malicious use of AI (MUAI) in the information and psychological sphere. The deteriorating international situation and various pressures on the country, in addition to the active use of AI-based high-tech ICTs, seriously increase the risks of MUAI.

Pierre-Emmanuel Thomann

A legal framework has been promoted at the EU level but there has been no real breakthrough so far because of various national opinions. More measures have been taken at the national level in France in some strategic areas like defense.

  1. Which of the threats to international psychological security caused by the malicious use of artificial intelligence do you consider the most relevant for Northeast Asia?

Vian Bakir and Andrew McStay

The use of emotional AI that has unproven accuracy in coercive situations will damage the global reputation of this emerging industry. For instance, exploiting the absence of laws restricting authorities’ access to biometric data on the grounds of national security or public safety, major Chinese technology companies, including Baidu and Alibaba, are experimenting with emotion recognition. Smaller start-ups have begun to collaborate with academics and local governments to roll out emotion recognition technology without safeguards or public deliberation in surveillance systems in prisons, detention centers, remand facilities, and police checkpoints (to detect violence and suicide among prisoners and suspect populations). A case in point is VibraImage technology (video and emotion analytics developed by the Russian company Elsys Corporation to measure facial and head micro-movements and muscle vibrations to describe and categorize subjects’ mental–emotional states). Branded as “Alphaeye” in China, it has been trialed for proof of concept to identify potentially dangerous people in crowds in major Chinese airports; was officially certified for use by Chinese police in 2017; and has been deployed in the Inner Mongolia Border Immigration Office and the train station in Yiwu City, Zhejiang Province. Such developments in China are globally significant in that, over the past few years, Chinese technology companies have fueled an international boom in foreign governments’ acquisition of surveillance technology: China’s One Belt, One Road initiative enables wide-scale implementation of Huawei’s SafeCities policing platforms and Hikvision facial recognition cameras in democracies and autocracies alike.

Raynel Batista Tellez

Based on the developing inter-region race to develop AI, economies’ growth perspectives, and power distribution patterns, the principal threats to international psychological security caused by the malicious use of artificial intelligence are:

a) Fake news reports using deepfake technology

b) Automated influence campaigns

c) Automated social engineering advertisement practices

d) Automated hacking

Robert Borkowski

The most serious threat, in my opinion, is the manipulation of the mood of the masses using disseminated fake news, arousing moral panic, hostility, and fear, and possibly fueling hostility towards the people of the region’s states.

Anna Bychkova

Such threats include: the generation of fake information, especially deepfakes; MUAI in shaping the information agenda (including on social networks); the uncontrolled spread of chatbots; the interception of control over technological systems involving AI; and the introduction of programs that generate text and comments on a given topic.

Matthew Crosston

A real and explicit change in the regional political order.

Svetlana S. Gorokhova

I believe that threats to information and psychological security, by and large, are universal in nature, and can cause equal harm to any person, regardless of their region of residence.

Nguyen Quoc Hung

AI technology can help create a vast volume of virtual information and distribute it rapidly and on a large-scale on social media, which can provoke the effect of social unrest, agitate people, and raise discomfort among them. MUAI can be the reason for the deepening division concerning social issues, as well as the distortion of the information work of the state by foreign propaganda. Thus, there is an increased risk of AI being used to interfere in state affairs.

Alexander Raikov

Series of conflicts developed within Hong Kong and Xinjiang is a source of great threat to psychological security. The conflicts between Northeast Asia’s countries and around the region also have only grown lately, and not without the West’s participation, spearheaded by the United States. This is detrimental to the political and economic stability not only in the region but also worldwide. It is worth noting the lack of a science-based systematic understanding of the threat of the malicious use of AI in the context of psychological security in all countries of Northeast Asia. China has advanced the most in understanding such threats, but they are principally discussed in the context of military threats.

The countries of Northeast Asia have not fully taken into account the synergistic effect of the systemic use of AI in the psychological sphere. Now, there are many AI tools through which damage can be done in the field of psychological security; for example, deepfake technology, distortion of the information agenda (agenda-setting, the use of chatbots, predictive analytics, cognitive modeling, etc.), and so on. It is necessary to consider the non-formalized cognitive semantics of AI models, their chaotic behavior and non-local effects, and the fluctuations of atomic components of neural network structures of a human brain. This is already the subject of research in the field of strong AI, which may be a new force in the formation of malicious psychological weapons.

Marina Reshetnikova

The main threat to IPS caused by the malicious use of AI is the violation of constitutional rights, namely personal inviolability. This violation can give rise to global psychosomatic disorder, leading to the destabilization of world order. The formation of permanent physiological disturbance provokes feelings of personal insecurity. Furthermore, this can cause not only internal political and ethnic unrest, but also large-scale artificial disasters. In this situation, the salvation of humanity depends on the development of protective technologies. It is through them that people will technologically confront “Big Brother.” These technologies will have to allow people to constantly simulate and model their “alternative personality” with parameters like geolocation and appearance. This is the only way to resist actors like NSO and their offspring, such as Pegasus.

Experimental legal regimes are the most promising and effective tools for creating a special testing procedure for and subsequent implementation of AI solutions. They ensure the required level of security, protection of citizens’ rights, and control through government agencies. An example of this is the introduction of an experimental legal regime in Moscow, where many large IT companies carry out their activities.

Vitali Romanovski

The critical threats to Northeast Asia are AI employment for the data-poisoning of strategic ecosystems, such as public transport, power grids, and nuclear infrastructure, and targeted cognitive operations against the population, when AI-supported computational propaganda tools—such as content manipulation, illegal data collection, microtargeting, and deepfakes—can assist malicious actors and their supporters in formulating political agendas and manipulating the population in a state or entire region.

Sergey A. Sebekin

The high level of interstate disagreements in the region and adjacent territories facilitates the malicious use of AI technologies, which may become a dangerous large-scale reality in the not-too-distant future.

Pierre-Emmanuel Thomann

The use of MUAI for geopolitical competition and state-sponsored terrorist threats is the most relevant threat for Northeast Asia.

Marius Vacarelu

The Global competition and wish to reach a better position in the world’s hierarchy affects Northeast Asia more than other parts of the world. Such wishes attract more unfriendly behavior from other competitors and a strong pressure on the citizens from their own governments. In such a paradigm, it is much more likely to see a strong internal dissatisfaction because of a national government’ actions rather than external actions.

  1. How much does the malicious use of artificial intelligence increase the level of threat to international psychological security in Northeast Asia today?

Bakir V. and McStay A. Batista Tellez R. Borkowski R. Bychkova A. Crosston M. Gorokhova S. Hung N. Q. Raikov A. Reshetnikova M. Romanovski V. Sebekin S. Thomann P.-E. Vacarelu M. Expert from Russia Expert from Vietnam #2 Expert from Vietnam #3
Strongly V V
Noticeably V V V V V V V V V V V
Only slightly V V V
Not at all

Vian Bakir and Andrew McStay

On the basis of our answer to Question 8, we would say “noticeably.” These technologies are still in their trial stages, but they have certainly been noticed with a great deal of concern by human rights organizations and journalists.

  1. How much will the malicious use of artificial intelligence increase the level of threat to international psychological security in Northeast Asia by 2030?

Bakir V. and McStay A. Batista Tellez R. Borkowski R. Bychkova A. Crosston M. Gorokhova S. Hung N. Q. Raikov A. Reshetnikova M. Romanovski V. Sebekin S. Thomann P.-E. Vacarelu M. Expert from Vietnam #2 Expert from Vietnam #3 Expert from Russia
Strongly V V V V V V
Noticeably V V V V V V V V V
Only slightly
Not at all

 Vian Bakir and Andrew McStay

We do not know. The answer to this will depend on how governments react to the trials. If they decide to go ahead with the widespread adoption of this technology, the answer would be “significantly”.

 

 11. In which countries of Northeast Asia (no more than three) have the threats to international psychological security caused by the malicious use of artificial intelligence reached the highest level? Why?

 Vian Bakir and Andrew McStay

China seems to be at the forefront of developing emotional AI for security reasons, and is a leading exporter of its surveillance technologies.

Raynel Batista Tellez

China, Japan, and South Korea are considered the countries with the fastest AI-driven development in the region. Their economic systems (representing different political systems) are also rising to the worldwide top.

Robert Borkowski

It seems that, based on the most developed economies in terms of digital technologies, and the societies with the highest rates of digital communication device usage, the highest level of MUAI risk is in Japan, South Korea, and China.

 Anna Bychkova

  1. For the first country, I think either South Korea or Japan.
  2. China.

South Korea and Japan are countries with a high level of technological development, but, unlike Russia, they are not vast territories with a multinational population and they do not run the risk of state collapse due to the implementation of extremist threats. The psychological security of the population of these countries is rather threatened by information dependence.

As for China, this country has a type of protection, being the power with the highest level of sovereign Internet (the Golden Shield Project or Great Firewall of China). Spreading a kind of “mental plague” across the world in the form of the TikTok platform, China itself is taking a number of measures aimed at banning the use of gadgets in educational institutions. It is also conducting experiments on its own population by using artificial intelligence to create a “social rating” system.

Matthew Crosston

China (domestically), North Korea (domestically), Japan/South Korea (internationally).

Alexander Raikov

China, Japan, and South Korea. These countries are the most dangerous economic competitors for the United States.

Marina Reshetnikova

South Korea, Japan, and, of course, China are leaders in developing and applying AI technologies in the NEA region and globally.

Japan currently applies these technologies for industry optimization by improving overall cost-effectiveness and maintaining public safety through an extensive CCTV network. However, the Japanese government is trying to participate in the private lives of citizens. With the help of AI algorithms, the matchmaking industry is now actively developing. Whatever the purpose, this is an interference in the lives of citizens and poses a threat to IPS.

China is the world’s leading country in the field of AI. In terms of the number of patents and AI talents, the country has bypassed its main competitor, the United States. Nevertheless, government actions such as tracking social activity, location, and health status raise some concerns.

The Chinese authorities deny that such technologies can be used to “control minds,” stating that active surveillance is part of the smart city system, allowing for tracking and controlling traffic, as well as responding faster to emergencies.

On the one hand, the people of China agree that a system in which they can be quickly informed of being in the same space as a COVID-19-infected person is sufficiently effective and is beneficial to fighting the epidemic, helping to reduce incidences of the disease. On the other hand, it is an encroachment upon privacy and IPS.

The social credit system continues to lack transparency due to the sheer volume and decentralized storage of information. However, Chinese society cannot get away from it due to cultural and historical peculiarities.

Thus, it can be said that China is the leader in MUAI in the region. The malicious nature of the anti-Chinese activity of US companies in the region, conducted through the extensive use of AI technologies, should also be noted.

Vitali Romanovski

The countries with the highest levels of digital interconnectivity and societal digitalization are the most vulnerable to sophisticated cyber-attacks and cognitive operations. South Korea and Japan are among those countries.

Sergey A. Sebekin

I think China, Japan, and South Korea.

Marius Vacarelu

China (because of internal political regime pressure); South Korea (because of North Korea’s international behavior), and Japan (because it is the key-country in Western Pacific security).

  1. How well is the public in Northeast Asia aware of the threats to international psychological security caused by the malicious use of artificial intelligence?

 

Raynel Batista Tellez

The public must be aware of these threats. However, the citizens in Northeast Asia are not aware enough of MUAI threats. Cultures may limit the access to education, information, and economic opportunities. The use of AI to destabilize international relations through targeted, high-tech, informational–psychological tactics carried out on people is a reality.

Robert Borkowski

It is difficult to gauge how well the public is aware of these threats, but given the nature of political systems, the most developed level of awareness of these threats should be found in the more democratic countries of Asia, where there is greater freedom of communication and free media, compared to in autocratic states and closed societies.

Matthew Crosston

Quite aware.

Nguyen Quoc Hung

Not very well aware.

Alexander Raikov

The public in Northeast Asia is not well aware of the threats to international psychological security caused by the malicious use of artificial intelligence because the public does not have a deep awareness of AI itself. The public is getting used people at work being replaced with robots. They may have heard something about the possible dangers of robots, about creating different ethical codes, and so on. But they do not think about the real dangers of AI.

Vitali Romanovski

The World Economic Forum’s Global Risks Report 2021 underlines that digital power concentration, digital inequality, and cybersecurity failure will be among the most likely risks in the next ten years. Moreover, the applications of today’s emerging technologies, including AI, can exacerbate regional tensions and bring new considerations to longstanding security challenges. The policymakers in Northeast Asia seem to be aware of the possible risks that the digital divide and disruption of supply chains could bring to economies. However, there is a lack of understanding of the risks that AI-supported cognitive operations could entail.

Sergey A. Sebekin

The societies of Northeast Asia – such as South Korea, Japan, and China – which, in terms of technological development, live in the tomorrow, are currently watching how high technologies are being introduced into daily life. At the same time, they find themselves in the trenches of the new threats produced by these technologies. Therefore, it seems that these societies have a certain, although insufficient, understanding of the psychological and destructive possibilities that MUAI can bring.

Marius Vacarelu

In China, the press mainly presents the positive aspects of AI. In other countries, the public has a more balanced approach to its dangers and benefits.

  1. How do you assess the degree of readiness of state bodies of the countries of Northeast Asia to counter threats to international psychological security caused by the malicious use of artificial intelligence?

Vian Bakir and Andrew McStray

A good first step would be the transparent publication of the trials determining how accurately the technologies achieve what they claim to achieve.

Raynel Batista Tellez

Their degree of readiness is only slight. Advancement in digital technologies produces changes in how information is disseminated and how diplomatic communication is conducted. Cyber-diplomacy has been recently recognized as an instrument of international cooperation to neutralize the proliferation of cyber-attacks and sustain the peaceful use of digital technology in the digital age. However, the countries in Northeast Asia have different interests and applications of Internet norms and cyber-governance. Perceptions and understandings of threats to international psychological security caused by the malicious use of artificial intelligence limit nations’ efforts to support multilateral models or common cyber-sovereignty strategies.

United Nations initiatives like the Governmental Group of Experts and the Internet Governance Forum have been established to address issues related to Internet governance and cybersecurity. However, regional efforts are close to succeeding due to cultural ties. Safe artificial intelligence requires cultural intelligence and changes in cultural codes, behaviors, and fields of knowledge to promote a regional response.

Robert Borkowski

Each country’s governments in this region have different concerns and enemies. Thus, their actions in domestic politics are very strongly conditioned by the incentives flowing from the immediate international environment. China’s policy is aimed at maintaining full control over its society. The policy of Japan and South Korea is more focused on the welfare of societies and maintaining the status quo in the region.

Anna Bychkova

I do not have information about other countries. In Russia, such readiness is expressed in the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 213 dated 12 April 2021, “On approval of the fundamentals of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of international information security.” An analysis of this decree allows us to assess the degree of readiness of Russia, as one of the countries of Northeast Asia, to counter threats to international psychological security as high.

Matthew Crosston

Degree of readiness = not very ready given the nature of how the threat impacts societal actors.

 Svetlana S. Gorokhova

In my opinion, the degree of readiness of the state bodies of the countries of Northeast Asia to counter threats to international psychological security caused by the malicious use of artificial intelligence—like the state bodies of any other region of the world—cannot be too high for a number of reasons, the most important of which is that AI technologies themselves are still at the stage of formation and development, and, so far, there is not enough empirical data to objectively assess possible future harm, which these technologies can cause even if they are used in good faith, not to mention the possible abuse of these technologies for criminal purposes.

Alexander Raikov

Their degree of readiness is low. The threat of a split in the world is growing. The development of international dialogue under these conditions is slowing down and is excluded from most countries’ foreign policy agenda and from the activities of international organizations and civil society. AI systems can reveal positive and negative tendencies and various nuances in the international dialogue, which is not always a prerequisite for leaders’ control of various states. At present, along with the analysis of possible risks, an active policy is needed to design a future that is moving in the direction of positive development. For this, an image of the future should be formed as a development goal. In this regard, the role of Russia among the Northeast Asian countries is increasing as this region of the world is capable of proposing a project to create a secure world. And AI systems can help implement this.

Vitali Romanovski

The pandemic has accelerated fragmentation in Northeast Asia. In the digitalization sphere, the bifurcation between the China- and US-dominated blocs is cause for serious concern. A multilateral mechanism that would promote dialogue among states is now greatly needed. Exchange in itself will not eradicate mistrust in the region, but lack of discussion can lead to serious miscalculations. This also applies to the understanding of the risks that can arise from the use of AI technologies by malicious actors.

Sergey A. Sebekin

To date, the degree of readiness is an extremely relative concept. It is enough to look at the dynamics with which high technologies are evolving today, and, with them, threats – both technological and psychological in nature. AI and the possibilities of its use in the near future will be in the trenches of this process of evolution. As for the technological societies of Northeast Asia – such as South Korea, Japan, and China – with their existing systems of government, they are perfectly capable of responding to incoming threats in a timely manner.

Marius Vacarelu

They are better prepared than the European countries and are probably most prepared at the global level.

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 This questionnaire is a part of the research project “Malicious Use of Artificial Intelligence and Challenges to Psychological Security in Northeast Asia” funded by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences, project number 21-514-92001. citește mai mult

Experts on the Malicious Use of Artificial Intelligence and Challenges to International Psychological Security (part II)

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  • 17 December 2021

  1. Which of the threats to international psychological security caused by the malicious use of artificial intelligence do you consider the most relevant for your country?

  Vian Bakir and Andrew McStay Surreptitious influencing via psychological manipulation on social media is a real threat in the UK. In the 2016 “Brexit” referendum on whether or not to leave the European Union, Cambridge Analytica offe

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